Personality disorders and diagnosis.

Ideas in this field include: A normal (5FM-based) model of disorder (McCrae); Dimensional vs. categorical approaches; Different categorizations; Models in the categories as important outcomes, but driven by a smaller set of latent causes (explaining co-morbidity). And, relatedly, approaches to levels of explanation, e.g. Michael Owen in genetics, and The RDoc in psychiatry.

1. History of Personality Disorder

  • Crocq, Marc-Antoine. "Milestones in the history of personality disorders." Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 15.2 (2013): 147. pdf

1. RDoC approach

  • Cuthbert, B. N., & Insel, T. R. (2013). Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC. BMC Medicine, 11(1). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-126 pdf
  • The matrix diagram of the RDoc

1. 5FM approaches

  • Trull, T. J., & Widiger, T. A. (2013). Dimensional models of personality: the five-factor model and the DSM-5. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15, 135 pdf
  • Krueger, R. F., Hopwood, C. J., Wright, A. G. C., & Markon, K. E. (2014). Challenges and Strategies in Helping the DSM Become More Dimensional and Empirically Based. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(12). doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0515-3 pdf

1. Anti-dimensional psychiatry.

  • Weinberger, D. R., Glick, I. D., & Klein, D. F. (2015). Whither Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)? JAMA Psychiatry, 72(12). doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1743 pdf

2. Breaking down distinctions among psychoses

  • Craddock, N., & Owen, M. J. (2018). The beginning of the end for the Kraepelinian dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(05), 364-366. doi:10.1192/bjp.186.5.364 pdf

2. Gene finding in personality disorder.

  • Lo, M. T., Hinds, D. A., Tung, J. Y., Franz, C., Fan, C. C., Wang, Y., … Chen, C. H. (2017). Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nature Genetics, 49(1), 152-156. doi:10.1038/ng.3736 pdf

2. Philosophical critiques/directions

  • Wakefield, J. C. (2014). Wittgenstein's nightmare: why the RDoC grid needs a conceptual dimension. World Psychiatry, 13(1), 38-40. doi:10.1002/wps.20097 pdf

A p-factor: General psychopathology factor

The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders? pdf (Hannah)
Avshalom Caspi, Renate M. Houts, Daniel W. Belsky, Sidra J. Goldman-Mellor, HonaLee Harrington, Salomon Israel1, Madeline H. Meier1, Sandhya Ramrakha, Idan Shalev, Richie Poulton, and Terrie E. Moffitt

Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research.

Antisocial personality disorder

  1. Eriksson, K., Vartanova, I., Strimling, P., Simpson, B. (2018). Generosity Pays: Selfish People Have Fewer Children and Earn Less Money. JPSP. (a nice antidote to the rumour that money is evil/SES is immoral/CEOs are psychopaths).
  2. Raine, A. (2013). The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime. New York: Pantheon/Random House; London: Allen Lane/Penguin. Amsterdam: Balans. (Excellent overview)
  3. Glenn, A. and Raine, A. (2014). Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications. New York: New York University Press.
  4. Frick, P. J., & Viding, E. (2009). Antisocial behavior from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 21(4), 1111-1131. doi:10.1017/S0954579409990071 (pdf)
  5. Skeem, J. L., Scott, E., & Mulvey, E. P. (2014). Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 709-739. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153707 (pdf)
  6. Harden, K. P., & Mann, F. D. (2015). Biological Risk for the Development of Problem Behavior in Adolescence: Integrating Insights from Behavioral Genetics and Neuroscience. Child Dev Perspect, 9(4), 211-216. doi:10.1111/cdep.12135 (pdf)
  7. Relevant researchers include Essi Viding, Nathalie Fontaine, Paul Frick, Jennifer Skeem, Ed Mulvey, Luke Hyde, Chris Patrick


  1. Hettema, J. M., Neale, M. C., Myers, J. M., Prescott, C. A. and Kendler, K. S. (2006). A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163. 857-864. doi. PMID.
  2. Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., Gatz, M. and Pedersen, N. L. (2007). The sources of co-morbidity between major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in a Swedish national twin sample. Psychological Medicine, 37. 453-462. doi]. PMID.
  3. Kendler, K. S., Gatz, M., Gardner, C. O. and Pedersen, N. L. (2006). A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163. 109-114. doi. PMID.
  4. Kendler, K. S., Gatz, M., Gardner, C. O. and Pedersen, N. L. (2006). Personality and major depression. A Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63. 1113-1120. doi]. PMID].
  5. Kendler, K. S. and Myers, J. (2010). The genetic and environmental relationship between major depression and the five-factor model of personality. Psychological Medicine, 40. 801-806. doi. PMID].
  6. Widiger, T. A., Costa, P. T., Jr. and McCrae, R. R. (2002). A proposal for Axis II: Diagnosing personality disorders using the Five-Factor Model. In ''Personality disorders and the Five-Factor Model of personality'' J. Costa P.T. and T. A. Widiger, Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association, 431-456.
  7. Widiger, T. A. and Frances, A. J. (2002). Toward a dimensional model for the personality disorders. In ''Personality disorders and the Five-Factor Model of personality'' P. T. Costa, Jr. and T. A. Widiger, Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association, 23-44.
  8. Widiger, T. A. and Mullins-Sweatt, S. N. (2009). Five-Factor Model of personality disorder: A proposal for DSM-V. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5. 197-220. doi. PMID].