Personality And Culture
  • Measures
    • Hui (1988). Measures for IND COLL pdf
    • Realo Hierarchical model of collectivism(s). pdf
  • Possible cognitive origins of grouping/individualizing
  • Hofstede measure of National Cultural Differences
    • McCrae paper summarizing Hofstede and linking to Personality. pdf
    • Triandis (2001) review of claimed linkages to individualism and collectivism pdf
    • Constructive critique Brewer, M. B. and Y. R. Chen (2007). "Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism." Psychological Review 114(1): 133-151.pdf
    • Strong Critique: McSweeney, B. (2016). "Hofstede’s Model of National Cultural Differences and their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith - a Failure of Analysis." Human Relations 55(1): 89-118. pdf
  • Critique of Markus and Kitayama (1991) (: Matsumoto, D. (1999). "Culture and self: An empirical assessment of Markus and Kitayama’s theory of independent and interdependent self-construals." Asian Journal of Social Psychology 2(3): 289-310. pdf
  • Where Americans sit relative to other nations and groups.
    • Oyserman, D., et al. (2002). "Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses." Psychological Bulletin 128(1): 3-72. pdf
  • Meta-analysis critical of idea that Japanese more collective than Americans.
    • Takano, Y. and E. Osaka (1999). "An unsupported common view: Comparing Japan and the U.S. on individualism/collectivism." Asian Journal of Social Psychology 2(3): 311-341. pdf
  • Person-centred view of culture:
    • Gjerde, P. F. (2004). "Culture, Power, and Experience: Toward a Person-Centered Cultural Psychology." Human Development 47(3): 138-157. doi 10.1159/000077987 pdf


  • Rentfrow, Gosling, & Potter (2008) [6]
  • McCrae, Terracciano etal. (2005) [4]
  • Hofstede & McCrae (2004) [2]
  • McCrae, Yik, Trapnell, Bond, & Paulhus (1998) [5]


  • Jokela (2012) [3]
  • Economic payoff of personality compared to SES
  • Roberts et al. (2007) [7]

Within Professions

  • Charlton, B. G. (2009). Why are modern scientists so dull? How science selects for perseverance and sociability at the expense of intelligence and creativity [1]
1. Charlton, B. G. (2009). Why are modern scientists so dull? How science selects for perseverance and sociability at the expense of intelligence and creativity. Medical Hypotheses, 72. 237-243. doi. pdf
2. Hofstede, G. and McCrae, R. R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38. 52-88. doi.
3. Jokela, M. (2012). Birth-cohort effects in the association between personality and fertility. Psychological Science, 23. 835-841. doi. PMID.
4. McCrae, R. R., Terracciano, A. and 78 Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project. (2005). Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: Data from 50 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88. 547-561. doi. pdf.
5. McCrae, R. R., Yik, M. S. M., Trapnell, P. D., Bond, M. H. and Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74. 1041-1055. doi.
6. Rentfrow, P. J., Gosling, S. D. and Potter, J. (2008). A theory of the emergence, persistence, and expression of geographic variation in psychological characteristics. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3. 339-369. doi.
7. Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A. and Goldberg, L. R. (2007). The Power of Personality The Comparative Validity of Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Status, and Cognitive Ability for Predicting Important Life Outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2. 313-345. doi.