Non Cognitive Factors

Core paper for review

Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., Shakeshaft, N. G., Trzaskowski, M., McMillan, A., Pingault, J. B., Asbury, K., Harlaar, N., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S. and Plomin, R. (2014). The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111. 15273-15278. doi. PMID.

  1. Hard work (Conscientiousness)
  2. Beliefs (Motivation)
  3. Openness to Experience
  4. intelligence-and-personality


  1. Heckman
  2. Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2016). Much Ado About Grit: A Meta-Analytic Synthesis of the Grit Literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi:10.1037/pspp0000102
  3. Dweck