Effortful Control

Vincent Freeman: “You want to know how I did it? This is how I did it, Anton – I never saved anything for the swim back.” GATTACA (1997)


  • Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2016). Much Ado About Grit: A Meta-Analytic Synthesis of the Grit Literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi:10.1037/pspp0000102
  • Crede, M., & Kuncel, N. R. (2008). Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes The Third Pillar Supporting Collegiate Academic Performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(6), 425-453. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>:000262000400001
  • Abuhassàn, A. and Bates, T. C. (2013). Grit: Distinguishing Effortful Persistence from Conscientiousness. //Journal of Individual Differences
  • Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D. and Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92. 1087-1101. doi.
  • Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary Genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London, Macmillan and Co.
  • James, W. (1907). The energies of men. Science, 25. 321-332.


  • Li, Y., & Bates, T. C. (2019). You can't change your basic ability, but you work at things, and that's how we get hard things done: Testing the role of growth mindset on response to setbacks, educational attainment, and cognitive ability. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 148(9), 1640-1655. doi:10.1037/xge0000669


  • Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M. and Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74. 1252-1265. [doi]. [ PMID].
  • But search replication crisis and depletion…

Conscientiousness and its correlates of C

  • Conscientiousness page
  • Deary, I. J., Batty, G. D., Pattie, A. and Gale, C. R. (2008). More intelligent, more dependable children live longer: a 55-year longitudinal study of a representative sample of the Scottish nation. Psychological Science, 19. 874-880. doi. PMID.
  • Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Poulton, R., Roberts, B. W., Ross, S., Sears, M. R., Thomson, W. M. and Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108. 2693-2698. doi. PMID.


  • Murray, C. (2003). Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950. New York, Harper Collins.